durian, scientifically known as Durio zibethinus Murr.
is believed to originate from the Borneo Islands. This plant
then spread to other tropical Asian countries like India,
Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines
and Papua New Guinea. Now, the durian is also grown in Australia.
However, the main distributors are Thailand, Malaysia and
Regions where durian is planted,
is a large-sized tropical fruit tree. The tree can reach
a height of 35 – 45m if grown from seeds. Trees that
originate from seeds have a buttress at the lowest part
of the bark. Durian
trees that are planted on a smooth level of land are smaller
in size (10-15m in height) and rarely have buttress roots
at the lowest part of the tree.
the durian is planted too close to other fruit trees, its
canopy would form an irregular shape. In a plain field,
durian trees usually have canopies the shape of a pyramid
and is wide.
durian is an evergreen tropical tree. The leaf measures
6-12 cm long and 2-4 cm wide. It ranges from pale green
to dark bronze, with a glossy upper surface, and reddish-brown
fine scales on the lower surface.
grow in clusters of 40-50 on the strong main mature branches.
The number varies depending on the age and the size of a
tree, and also on the surrounding environmental factors.
Generally, flowers appear only once in a year.
Flower bud and flower
flower bud is covered with fused epicalyx. The calyx has
4-6 lobes and there are five yellow petals. The nocturnal
durian flower blooms when night falls and is at its peak
at midnight. Usually, no pollen can survive until the next
morning, so active pollination occurs during the night.
Bats are pollination agents
the pollination agents are bats(Eonycterus spalee
and Macroglossus minimus), spiders(Apisdorsata)
durian fruit is usually round or oval and it is 20 –25 cm
in length and 18 –20 cm in diameter. The fruit weighs from
1.0 –4.5 kg. It has a thick skin and sharp thorns. Its stem
is cylinder in shape and is 3 –6 cm long. Its skin colour
is usually green or yellowish green. The fruit has five
sections. Each section contains a few pips (the durian seed
is covered with flesh).
durian pips differ in aspects like colour, thickness, texture,
aroma, taste or flavour depending on the clone. The seed
is oval-shaped and has a diameter of 1–1.5 cm and is chocolate
in colour. Durian that has fallen off the tree cannot be
kept long (just for 2 –3 days).
100gm edible portion